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WHAT IS SHARE (STOCK) MARKET?
It is a place where shares of pubic listed companies are traded. The primary market is where companies float shares to the general public in an Initial Public Offering (IPO) to raise capital.
Once new securities have been sold in the primary market, they are traded in the secondary market—where one investor buys shares from another investor at the prevailing market price or at whatever prices both the buyer and seller agree upon. The secondary market or the stock exchanges are regulated by the regulatory authority. In India, the secondary and primary markets are governed by the Security and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
A stock exchange facilitates stock brokers to trade company stocks and other securities. A stock may be bought or sold only if it is listed on an exchange. Thus, it is the meeting place of the stock buyers and sellers. India's premier stock exchanges are the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and the National Stock Exchange (NSE).
What is a share market?
Share market is the marketplace where you meet buyers and sellers for trading in shares and stocks. Companies contact the share market start selling their shares and the market issues the shares for trading.
What’s the story of share market?
It all started with the Indian stock market which operated around banyan trees where buyers and sellers met to trade stocks. In 1854, they moved to Dalal Street which is now popular for the oldest stock exchange in Asia i.e. the Bombay stock Exchange (BSE). The BSE became the first stock exchange in India and played a significant role in the growth of the Indian stock market.
Later in 1992, the National Stock Exchange (NSE) was established. NSE was the first exchange in the country to provide a modern, fully automated screen-based electronic trading system which offered easy trading facility to the investors spread across the country.
Tell me more about markets?
Let’s start with the term ‘Capital’ which indicates wealth in the form of money, assets or investments owned by individuals or organizations. Capital Markets help individuals and organizations to fulfill their various needs such as buy a car, increase savings, etc. using different ways of investing.
Capital markets generally consist of primary market and secondary market.
Primary market is the market where securities are issued to investors for the first time while secondary markets refers to a market where securities are traded after being initially offered to the public in the primary market and/or listed on the Stock Exchange. Majority of the trading is done in the secondary market.
Primary markets may be thought of as being synonymous with an Initial Public Offering (IPO). Simply put, an IPO occurs when a private company sells stocks to the public for the first time. The secondary markets are usually what people refer to when they talk about the stock markets.
Why do companies offer their shares in the market?
Companies offer their shares in the market to raise money to fulfill their various goals such as company expansion, purchase of new machinery, etc. The money spent by the shareholders will be used to build the company’s business.
The overall responsibility of development, regulation and supervision of the stock market rests with the Securities & Exchange Board of India (SEBI), which was formed in 1992 as an independent authority. Since then, SEBI has consistently tried to lay down market rules in line with the best market practices. It enjoys vast powers of imposing penalties on market participants, in case of a breach. (For more insight, see http://www.sebi.gov.in/. )
The National Stock Exchange (NSE) is the leading stock exchange in India and the fourth largest in the world by equity trading volume in 2015, according to World Federation of Exchanges (WFE). NSE was the first exchange in India to implement electronic or screen-based trading. It began operations in 1994 and is ranked as the largest stock exchange in India in terms of total and average daily turnover for equity shares every year since 1995, based on SEBI.
NSE has a fully-integrated business model comprising our exchange listings, trading services, clearing and settlement services, indices, market data feeds, technology solutions and financial education offerings. NSE also oversees compliance by trading and clearing members with the rules and regulations of the exchange.NSE is committed to improve the financial well-being people.
NSE is a pioneer in technology and ensures the reliability and performance of its systems through a culture of innovation and investment in technology. NSE believes that the scale and breadth of its products and services, sustained leadership positions across multiple asset classes in India and globally enable it to be highly reactive to market demands and changes and deliver innovation in both trading and non-trading businesses to provide high-quality data and services to market participants and clients.
National Stock Exchange (NSE):
The National Stock Exchange (NSE) is the leading Stock Exchange of India, located in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. NSE was started to end the monopoly of the Bombay stock exchange in the Indian market.
NSE was established in 1992 as the first demutualized electronic exchange in the country.
NSE was the first exchange in the country to provide a modern, fully automated screen-based electronic trading system which offered easy trading facility to the investors spread across the length and breadth of the country.
NSE has a total market capitalization of more than US$1.41 trillion, making it the World’s 12th-Largest Stock Exchange as of March 2016.
NSE’s index, the NIFTY 50, is used extensively by investors in India and around the world as a barometer of the Indian capital markets.
The NIFTY 50 index is National Stock Exchange of India’s benchmark stock market index for Indian equity market. Nifty is owned and managed by India Index Services and Products (IISL).
The base year is taken as 1995 and the base value is set to 1000.
Nifty is calculated on 50 stocks actively traded in the NSE
50 top stocks are selected from 24 sectors.
The Sensex and Nifty are both indicators of market movement. If the Sensex or Nifty goes up, it means that most of the stocks in India went up during the given period. If the Nifty goes down, this tells you that the stock price of most of the major stocks on the BSE have gone down
Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE)
Bombay Stock Exchange is an Indian stock exchange located at Mumbai, Maharashtra.
It was established in 1875 and is Asia’s oldest Stock Exchange.
It is the world’s fastest Stock Exchange, with a medium trade speed of 6 microseconds.
The BSE is the World’s 11th Largest Stock Exchange with an overall market capitalization of $1.43 Trillion as of March, 2016.
More than 5500 companies are publicly listed on the BSE
WHAT ARE NIFTY AND SENSEX?
The Sensex and Nifty are both Indices (plural of index). Indices are nothing but indicators of market movement. Sensex is the benchmark index of S&P BSE (Bombay Stock Exchange), whereas NIFTY is benchmark index of NSE (National Stock Exchange).
SENSEX stands for SENSitive indEX (starting four letters of sensitive and last two letters of the index). SENSEX is also known as BSE 30 or S&P BSE SENSEX. SENSEX becomes S&P SENSEX as BSE ties up with Standard and Poor have to use the S&P brand for Sensex and other indices. Sensex consists of 30 Stocks, which is selected based on various factors like market capitalization, trading frequency, listing history, sector to which the stock belongs etc. SENSEX is the base of 30 major and active shares which means that its movement will be decided by these 30 shares. Published on 1 January 1986, more than 5500 companies are listed on BSE but for calculating Sensex only 30 are considered and it is assumed that these 30 stocks replicate the market.
NIFTY was coined for the two words ‘National’ and ‘FIFTY’. The word Fifty is used because; the Index consists of 50 actively traded stocks from various sectors. NIFTY is also known as CNX NIFTY or NIFTY 50. Nifty is owned and managed by India Index Services and Products (IISL), which is a wholly owned subsidiary of the NSE Strategic Investment Corporation Limited. NIFTY is made up of Fifty Companies from 24 different sectors”.
The 30 companies in Sensex & 50 companies in Nifty are selected and reviewed from time to time by an “Index Committee". Sensex & Nifty are the indicators of how good Indian economy is performing.
The Sensex, also called the BSE 30, is a stock market index of 30 well-established and financially sound companies listed on Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE).
30 companies are selected on the basis of the free float market capitalization.
These are different companies from the different sectors representing a sample of large, liquid and representative companies.
The base year of Sensex is 1978-79 and the base value is 100.
It is an indicator of market movement.
If Sensex go up, it means that most of the stocks in India went up during the given period. If the Sensex goes down, this tells you that the stock price of most of the major stocks on the BSE have gone down
How Sensex & Nifty are calculated:
Nifty and Sensex are calculated by using the method of free float market capitalization weighted average. Free float market capitalization is nothing but the proportion of total shares issued by the company that are readily available for trading in the market. It generally excludes promoters holding, government holding, strategic holding and other locked-in shares that will not come to the market for trading in the normal itinerary. Free-float Methodology makes the index more broad-based by reducing the concentration of top few companies in Index.
Difference between SENSEX and NIFTY is as follows:
1) SENSEX is the Stock Market Index for BSE Limited while Nifty is the Stock Market Index for National Stock Exchange (NSE).
2) SENSEX is comprised of 30 stocks while Nifty is comprised of 50 stocks.
3) Sensex is Founded in 1986 whereas Nifty is founded in 1995
Participants in the Stock Market
These are the platforms where different products like equities, bonds, derivatives, and mutual funds are traded. All market participants have to register on these exchanges and the Stock Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
These service providers act as intermediaries between the stock exchanges and the investors. Before offering broking services, they need to register with the stock exchanges. The brokers provide information about client trades to the exchanges, which then search for a matching order.
Traders and Investors:
These are individuals or institutional entities that buy and sell various financial products available on the stock exchanges. The traders trade in different instruments to make profits either for themselves or for their clients. Individual investors often invest in different products to gain profits in the short and long term. Traders and investors are advised to follow the share market basics to mitigate the inherent risks of stock investing and to maximize the potential returns.
Stock investing is risky and regulation is crucial to protect the investors’ interests. SEBI is provided with this responsibility and develops various rules and regulations to develop the stock exchanges while protecting the investors.
Working of the Stock Market
Before you learn the basics of trade, it is essential to know about how does stock market work? Here is its working explained in detail:
The Stock Exchange Board of India (SEBI), stock exchanges, brokers, and traders/investors
The stock exchange provides a platform for trading in financial products. The companies (listing their shares), brokers, traders, and investors must register with SEBI and the exchange (BSE, NSE, or regional exchanges) before trading.
Steps to Invest in the Indian Stock Market
The companies file a draft offer document with the SEBI. This document comprises information about the company—shares being diluted, price band, and other details. On approval, the company offers its shares to investors through an IPO on the primary market.
The Company issues and allots shares to some or all investors who bid during the IPO. The shares are then listed on the stock market (secondary market) to enable trading. This platform is a medium offered for the initial investors to exit their share market investments. In addition, investors who failed to receive allotment during the IPO are given the opportunity to buy shares on the secondary market.
Broking agencies (registered with SEBI and the stock exchange) are intermediaries between the investors and the Indian stock market. On receiving instructions from the clients, the brokers place their orders on the market. On matching a buyer and seller, the trade is successfully executed. A confirmation is received from the stock exchange and sent to both the buyer and seller.
Historically, this procedure was manual and thus time-consuming and cumbersome. However, with online trading platforms, the entire procedure of matching buyers and sellers is done through the internet. This has reduced the transaction time to a few minutes.
Nonetheless, there are thousands of potential investors and converging all of them in one location is impossible. Stock exchanges and broking agencies play a crucial role in this situation.
This occurs when an order is placed by brokers on behalf of their clients on the exchange where it is processed. There are several parties involved in the entire processing. When buyers and sellers are matched, the stock exchange sends a confirmation to both parties to avoid defaults. The executed trades are settled, which is the process where the buyer receives the shares and sellers receive their funds. The Indian stock market adopts the T+2 settlements, where the settlement occurs within two working days from the day of the transaction.
Following the stock market basics and understanding how it works will help make investing profitable and prevent investors from taking unnecessary risks
10 golden rules of investing in stock markets.
Avoid the herd mentality. ...
Take informed decision. ...
Invest in business you understand. ...
Don't try to time the market. ...
Follow a disciplined investment approach. ...
Do not let emotions cloud your judgment. ...
Create a broad portfolio
Have realistic expectations
Invest only your surplus funds
What is Investment?
The money you earn is partly spent and the rest saved for meeting future expenses. Instead of keeping the savings idle you may like to use savings in order to get return on it in the future. This is called Investment.
Why should one invest?
One needs to invest to: earn return on your idle resources generate a specified sum of money for a specifi c goal in life make a provision for an uncertain future One of the important reasons why one needs to invest wisely is to meet the cost of Inflation. Inflation is the rate at which the cost of living increases. The cost of living is simply what it costs to buy the goods and services you need to live. Inflation causes money to lose value because it will not buy the same amount of a good or a service in the future as it does now or did in the past. For example, if there was a 6% inflation rate for the next 20 years, a Rs. 100 purchase today would cost Rs. 321 in 20 years. This is why it is important to consider inflation as a factor in any long-term investment strategy. Remember to look at an investment’s ‘real’ rate of return, which is the return after inflation. The aim of investments should be to provide a return above the inflation rate to ensure that the investment does not decrease in value. For example, if the annual inflation rate is 6%, then the investment will need to earn more than 6% to ensure it increases in value. If the after-tax return on your investment is less than the inflation rate, then your assets have actually decreased in value; that is, they won’t buy as much today as they did last year.
What is a Derivative?
Derivative is a product whose value is derived from the value of one or more basic variables, called underlying. The underlying asset can be equity, index, foreign exchange (forex), commodity or any other asset. Derivative products initially emerged as hedging devices against fluctuations in commodity prices and commodity-linked derivatives remained the sole form of such products for almost three hundred years. The financial derivatives came into spotlight in post-1970 period due to growing instability in the financial markets. However, since their emergence, these products have become very popular and by 1990s, they accounted for about two thirds of total transactions in derivative products